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Geothermal in Pakistan

Most of the high enpathalpy geothermal resources of the world are within seismic volcanic activity. A global seismic belt passes through Pakistan and the country has long geological history of geotectonic events. Pakistan possesses a good regime for goethermal energy. Many hot water springs, some generating surface water temperature upto 83oC lie in the North of Pakistan. Geothermal sites have also been identified in Balochistan and Sindh. Although detailed survey have not been conducted. In Tibet, which occupies more or less the same geological position in Himalayan mountain ranges as Pakistan, more than 6000 surface indications of geothermal energy resources have been discovered with an estimated potential of 800,000 KW. It is estimated that over 5,000 MW of Geothermal resources can be commercially tapped in the short run.

Biofuels in Pakistan

Pakistan being the agriculture country is having huge prospects for energy plantation i.e. Jatropha Curcas, Castor, Sukh Chain etc. Around 35 million hectares of marginal / degraded land is available in different parts of the country that is best suited for this purpose.

Currently, Paistan consumes around 08 million tons of petroleum diesel per annum; half of which is imported. The Government of Pakistan (GoP) has set indicative target of Biodiesel blending; 5% by volume of the total diesel consumption by the year 2015. This share by volume is to be increased to 10% by the year 2025. This share by volume is to be increased to 10% by the year 2025. GoPs targets of biodiesel blending make it a potential sector for investment.

Biomass in Pakistan

The availability of biomass in Pakistan is also widespread. Urban areas of Pakistan generate over 55000 tones of solid wastes, 225 000 tonnes of crop residue and over 1 million tonnes of animal manure are produced daily. More than a total of 15 million layer-chicken and 528 broiler chicken birds were approximately produced in 2003 with a share of 22%, 68%, 3.5% and 6.5% of Sindh, Punjab, Balochistan and NWFP provinces respectively. According to unofficial estimates, hardly 5 to 10% poultry farms have membership of Pakistan Poultry Association (PPA). As per livestock Census 2006 there are 56.9 million animals (Buffaloes, cow, and bullocks) in Pakistan. On the average the daily dung dropping of medium size of animal is estimated 15 kg per day. This would yield 854 million kg dung/day. Assuming 50 % connectivity the availability of fresh dung comes out to be 427 million kg/day. Thus 21.35 million M3 biogas can be produced through bio-methanation. In addition it will also produce 450 million tonnes of bio-fertilizer per day, which is essential requirement for sustaining of the fertility of agricultural land.

It is estimated that the potential production of biogas from livestock residue is 8.8 to 17.2 billion cubic meters of gas per year (equivalent to 55 to 106 TWh of energy). Additionally, the annual electricity production from bagasse (the fibrous residue remaining after sugarcane or sorghum processing) is estimated at 5700 GWh.

Wind Energy in Pakistan

Wind energy is another important area where Pakistan can benefit by exploiting it in efficient manner. This sector is getting worldwide attention with the development and availability of inexpensive technology that allows its easy conversion to useful energy. Recognizing the vast potential that wind energy offers, a number of initiatives in Public and private sector have been taken. Pakistan has 1000 Km long coastline, which could be utilized for installation of wind farms. There are regions in the mountainous areas of Pakistan, which has the potential for wind energy generation.

The Wind Map of Pakistan developed by National Renewable Energy Labs (USA) has identified that wind with good to excellent speeds is available in many parts of the country, establishing a total potential of about 340,000 MW. The Gharo – Keti Bandar Wind corridor, in the South of Pakistan, having an approximate potential of 50,000 MW in the most attractive to investors at this point due to good resource potential as well as its close proximity to major load centres and the National Grid.

Pakistan Wind Power Density (W/m2) at 50-m Above Ground Level

Solar in Pakistan

Pakistan lies in an area of one of the highest solar insulation in the world and has immense solar resources, suitable for both Photovoltaic (PV) and Thermal i.e. Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) applications. There are certain regions of south, Quetta valley and Central Punjab that receive maximum solar radiation. The Annual Direct Normal Solar Radiation for CSP is in the range of 7-7.5 KWh/m2/day in many parts of Balochistan and between 6.5-7 KWh/m2/day in other parts of Balochistan. 5-5.5 KWh/m2/day in Southern Punjab and Northern Sindh and around 4.5-5 KWh/m2/day in rest of Pakistan (Figure 1).

Figure 1: Pakistan Direct Normal Solar Radiation (Annual)

The Annual Flat Plate Titled at Latitude Solar Radiation indicates immense potential for PV, which is in the range of 7-7.5 KWh/m2/day in most of Balochistan, 6-6.5 KWh/m2/day in most of Sindh, Southern Punjab and Gilgit-Baltistan and in the range of 5.5-6 KWh/m2/day in rest of the country (Figure 2).

Figure 2: Pakistan Flat Plate Tilted at Latitude (Annual)

This means that there is a vast potential for converting the untapped solar energy source for useful means. This potential can be exploited to produce electricity, which can be provided to off-grid communities in the northern hilly areas and the southern and western deserts. According to the Pakistan Energy Book 2004-05, solar energy falling on 0.25% Balochistan province would be adequate to meet the current requirement of the country with 20% efficient devices.

Seasonal Maps (Direct)

Direct Normal Solar Radiation for Winter (December, January, February)

Direct Normal Solar Radiation for Spring (March, April, May)

Direct Normal Solar Radiation for Summer (June, July, August)

Direct Normal Solar Radiation for Fall (September, October, November)

Seasonal Maps (Latitude Tilt)

Solar Flat Plate Tilted at Latitude Winter (December, January, February)

Solar Flat Plate Tilted at Latitude Spring (March, April, May)

Solar Flat Plate Tilted at Latitude Summer (June, July, August)

Solar Flat Plate Tilted at Latitude Fall (September, October, November )

Projects and Initiatives

Data will be provided soon….

Projects and Initiatives

Data will be provided soon….

Projects and Initiatives

Data will be provided soon….

Projects and Initiatives

Data will be provided soon…

Projects and Initiatives

Data will be provided soon…