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Solar Cell & Photovoltaic Modules

Photovoltaic (PV) Power

PV is emerging as a major power resource, steadily becoming more affordable and proving to be more reliable than utilities. Photovoltaic power promises a brighter, cleaner future for our children.

In 1839, Edmund Becquerel discovered the process of using sunlight to produce an electric current in a solid material, but it wasn’t until a century later that scientists eventually learned that the photovoltaic effect caused certain materials to convert light energy into electrical energy.

The photovoltaic effect is the basic principal process by which a PV cell converts sunlight into electricity. When light shines on a PV cell, it may be reflected, absorbed, or pass right through. The absorbed light generates electricity.

In the early 1950s, photovoltaic (PV) cells were developed as a spin-off of transistor technology. Very thin layers of pure silicon are impregnated with tiny amounts of other elements. When exposed to sunlight, small amounts of electricity are produced. Originally this technology was a costly source of power for satellites but it has steadily come down in price making it affordable to power homes and businesses.

  • Cells Semiconductor device that converts sunlight into direct current (DC) electricity
  • Modules PV modules consist of PV cell circuits sealed in an environmentally protective laminate and are the fundamental building block of PV systems
  • Panels PV panels include one or more PV modules assembled as a pre-wired, field-installable unit
  • Array A PV array is the complete power-generating unit, consisting of any number of PV modules and panels

Photovoltaic Cell

A single PV cell is a thin semiconductor wafer made of two layers generally made of highly purified silicon (PV cells can be made of many different semiconductors but crystalline silicon is the most widely used). The layers have been doped with boron on one side and phosphorous on the other side, producing surplus of electrons on one side and a deficit of electrons on the other side.

When the wafer is bombarded by sunlight, photons in the sunlight knock off some of excess electrons, this makes a voltage difference between the two sides as the excess electrons try to move to the deficit side. In silicon this voltage is 0.5 volt

Metallic contacts are made to both sides of the semiconductor. With an external circuit attached to the contacts, the electrons can get back to where they came from and a current flows through the circuit. This PV cell has no storage capacity, it simply acts as an electron pump.

The amount of current is determined by the number of electrons that the solar photons knock off. Bigger cells, more efficient cells, or cells exposed to more intense sunlight will deliver more electrons.

Photovoltaic Modules

A PV module consists of many PV cells wired in parallel to increase current and in series to produce a higher voltage. 36 cell modules are the industry standard for large power production.

The module is encapsulated with tempered glass (or some other transparent material) on the front surface, and with a protective and waterproof material on the back surface. The edges are sealed for weatherproofing, and there is often an aluminum frame holding everything together in a mountable unit. In the back of the module there is a junction box, or wire leads, providing electrical connections.

Types of PV Modules

Monocrystalline Silicon Panels: Monocrystalline (or single-crystal) silicon solar panels have a return electricity rate of anywhere from 14% to 18%. These panels are made from one continuous sheet of silicon that has pieces of metal nailed to the edges to increase the conductivity and to excite the electrons.

Monocrystalline panels are more expensive than some of the other types of solar panels that you can buy but they are also more effective, so in the long run you’re better off buying these panels if you can afford the up front cost.

Polycrystalline Silicon Panels: Polycrystalline (or multi-crystal) silicon panes have an electricity return rate of about 12%-14% so they are less efficient than monocrystalline silicon solar panels. These panels are made up of lots of individual PV cells that have metal conducting materials nailed to the sides that will help excite the electrons and also connect the cells together.

Polycrystalline silicon panels are the cheapest solar panels to produce so they are usually the cheapest for consumers to buy. The maintenance costs of polycrystalline silicon panels is lower than the maintenance cost of monocrystalline solar panels because if one of the cells on a polycrystalline panel is damaged you can have the individual cell replaced without having to replace the entire panel.

String Ribbon Silicon Panels:  String ribbon silicon panels are made in a similar way to the polycrystalline silicon panels and have about the same electricity return rate. The difference between string ribbon silicon panels and polycrystalline silicon panels is that the PV cells in a string ribbon panel are made of strips of silicon attached to metal bars that connect the strips to form a cell. Using strips of silicon to form the cell instead of using one solid square of silicon make the production cost of string ribbon silicon panels a bit lower than the production cost of polycrystalline silicon panels.

Amorphous Silicon Panels:  Amorphous silicon panels have the lowest electricity return rate of any type of solar panels. Traditionally amorphous silicon solar panels have an electricity return rate of between 5%-6%. That’s because these panels aren’t made with crystalline silicon. They are composed of a piece of semi conductive metal, like copper, with a thin silicon film over the top that is attached to some metal pieces.

These panels are very cheap to produce but when you’re buying solar panels for home use you need to consider the long term efficiency of the type of panel that you’re buying. Unfortunately, though cheap to begin with they do not produce much energy, therefore amorphous silicon panels are not going to be cost effective in the long run.

Photovoltaic Panels

PV panels include one or more PV modules assembled as a pre-wired, field-installable unit. The modular design of PV panels allows systems to grow as needs change. Modules of different manufacture can be intermixed without any problem, as long as all the modules have rated voltage output within 1.0 volt difference.

Solar panels generate free power from the sun by converting sunlight to electricity with no moving parts, zero emissions, and no maintenance. The solar panel, the first component of a electric solar energy system, is a collection of individual silicon cells that generate electricity from sunlight. The photons (light particles) produce an electrical current as they strike the surface of the thin silicon wafers. A single solar cell produces only about 1/2 (.5) of a volt. However, a typical 12 volt panel about 25 inches by 54 inches will contain 36 cells wired in series to produce about 17 volts peak output. If the solar panel can be configured for 24 volt output, there will be 72 cells so the two 12 volt groups of 36 each can be wired in series, usually with a jumper, allowing the solar panel to output 24 volts. When under load (charging batteries for example), this voltage drops to 12 to 14 volts (for a 12 volt configuration) resulting in 75 to 100 watts for a panel of this size.

Multiple solar panels can be wired in parallel to increase current capacity (more power) and wired in series to increase voltage for 24, 48, or even higher voltage systems. The advantage of using a higher voltage output at the solar panels is that smaller wire sizes can be used to transfer the electric power from the solar panel array to the charge controller & batteries. Since copper has gone up considerably in the last few years, purchasing large copper wiring and cables is quite expensive.

Solar Panels

Photovoltaic Array

A PV Array consists of a number of individual PV modules or panels that have been wired together in a series and/or parallel to deliver the voltage and amperage a particular system requires. An array can be as small as a single pair of modules, or large enough to cover acres.

12 volt module is the industry standard for battery charging. Systems processing up to about 2000 watt-hours should be fine at 12 volts. Systems processing 2000 – 7000 watt-hours will function better at 24 volt. Systems running more than 7000 watt-hours should probably be running at 48 volts.

Photovoltaic Module Performance

The performance of PV modules and arrays are generally rated according to their maximum DC power output (watts) under Standard Test Conditions (STC). Standard Test Conditions are defined by a module (cell) operating temperature of 25o C (77 F), and incident solar irradiant level of 1000 W/m2 and under Air Mass 1.5 spectral distribution. Since these conditions are not always typical of how PV modules and arrays operate in the field, actual performance is usually 85 to 90 percent of the STC rating.

Today’s photovoltaic modules are extremely safe and reliable products, with minimal failure rates and projected service lifetimes of 20 to 30 years. Most major manufacturers offer warranties of twenty or more years for maintaining a high percentage of initial rated power output. When selecting PV modules, look for the product listing (UL), qualification testing and warranty information in the module manufacturer’s specifications.

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